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文章来源:中国科学报    发布时间:2018-10-17 00:31:05  【字号:      】

 日本对集体自卫权的讨论,实际上属于日本战后宪法修改问题的一个重要环节。日本在1947年颁布施行日本国宪法,该宪法奉行的原则便是放弃战争、不维持武力、不拥有宣战权,故而又被称为《和平宪法》。这部宪法集中体现这项原则的,便是第九条:

 The central government supports the special administrative region governments of Hong Kong and Macao in the exercise of power in accordance with the law, and supports Hong Kong and Macao in its integration with the country's development, enhancing the patriotic sense of Hong Kong and Macao compatriots and maintaining the long-term prosperity and stability of Hong Kong and Macao.

 “双十一到了,看着坐在电脑前摩拳擦掌准备抢购的老婆,我悄悄地地去银行把所有帐号办了挂失,上帝保佑我明天还活着。 ”――类似这样的段子几天前就开始在网络上流窜,令人禁不住脑补事情真正发生后夫妻不合的画面。

 China will never seek its development at the cost of sacrificing other nations' interests, and its development will pose no threat to any other country, President Xi Jinping said on Tuesday.

 可以说,这个判例对集体自卫权是否成立提供了一个非常明确的界定。据此,在通常情况下,集体自卫权需要具备以下要素,首先是需要具有紧急的,违法的侵害行动发生;其次则是“必要性 ”,也就是说在国际法的框架中,为了遏制武装入侵者,其他选择余地以及时间已经不存在;再次则是“均衡性 ”,即采取的行动及自卫措施应该在对应的限度内;另外,还需要被援助国遭受武力攻击的声明以及援助的邀请。

 Xi pledged to uphold absolute Party leadership over the people's armed forces, fully implement the Party's strategy on strengthening military capabilities for the new era, enhance the political loyalty of the armed forces, strengthen them through reform and technology and run them in accordance with law.




(责任编辑:刘浩阔)

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